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Glossary of Milling Terms

Cog pit / cog hole: the area housing the pit wheel.

Crook string: a cord attached to the narrow end of the shoe and operated so as to adjust the flow of grain to the stones.

Crown wheel: a horizontal gear wheel at the top of the upright shaft providing a drive to auxiliary lay shafts.

Damsel: a vertical iron rod incorporating a cam which is driven from the mace in order to strike the shoe, causing it to agitate.

Floats: paddles attached to the waterwheel.

Gimbal: an iron fitting mounted on the mace and providing the drive to the runner stone.

Great spur wheel: driven by the upright shaft from the wallower, it in turn drives the stone nuts and finally the runner stones.

Hopper: a wooden bin with sloping sides feeding grain to the shoe.

Horse: the timber structure supporting the shoe and the hopper.

Hursting: the structure housing all the main driving mechanism of the mill and supporting the millstones.

Lading: a place where waterborne cargo can be landed or loaded.

Lucam: a high-level structural projection to the building giving access to grain hoisted from below.

Mace: an iron fitting mounted on the end of the stone spindle.

Nether or bedstone: the fixed lower stone.

Pit wheel: a gear wheel vertically mounted on the horizontal drive shaft or axle and engaged with the wallower.

Rap: a wooden pad attached to the shoe and struck by the damsel.

Runner stone: the upper driven stone.

Shoe: a tapered wooden trough acting as a feeder to the millstones.

Sluice: a vertically mounted board to control the flow of water to the waterwheel.

Spouts: the wooden ducting delivering the meal from the tun.

Starts: wooden or iron frames to hold the paddles to the waterwheel.

Stone Nut: a small gear driven by the Great Spur Wheel or Spur Wheel. It drives the Runner Stone. In most watermills, the stones are driven from below. These are called Underdrift stones. A few watermills drove the stones from above, known as Overdrift stones.

Tentering gear: the mechanism providing adjustment to the gap between the runner and nether stone.

Tun/vat: the wooden casing covering the millstones.

Twist peg: a simple circular friction device made of wood holding the crook string.

Upright shaft: driven by the wallower, the shaft drives the great spur wheel.

Wallower: the horizontal pinion mounted on the upright shaft and driven by the pit wheel.

Waterwheel: vertically mounted on the horizontal drive shaft or axle and powered by a flow of water so as to cause the wheel to rotate.